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Developers’ Journal

Proof-of-Profession, Proof-of-Stake 의 발전적 대안

Jan 25th, 2020

지분 증명(Proof-of-Stake)과 위임된 지분 증명(Delegated Proof-of-Stake)

위임된 지분 증명(Delegated Proof-of-Stake, 이하 DPoS)은 지분 증명(Proof-of-Stake, 이하 PoS)에 비해 확장성(scalability)에 강점을 갖는 반면 탈중앙화(decentralization)에 약점을 가지고 있다는 것은 많이 알려진 사실입니다. 그러나 탈중앙화를 어떻게 정의하는지에 따라 조금은 다르게 생각해 볼 수도 있습니다.

PoS의 경우 토큰 경제에 참여하기 위해서는 홀더가 직접 자신의 노드를 운영해야 합니다. 또한 거버넌스에 참여하기 위해 자신이 잘 모르는 분야에 대한 지식까지도 늘 새롭게 배우고 이해해야 합니다. 생태계에 참여하고자 하는 대부분의 홀더에게 이러한 과정은 결코 작지 않은 문턱일 수 있습니다. 반대로 자신과 방향성이 같고 믿을 만한 대리인에게 자신의 권리를 위임해 줄 수 있다면 어쩌면 더 많은 홀더의 참여를 유도하여 다양한 의견을 더 공정하게 살피는 방법일 수도 있습니다. 물론 현재의 DPoS 기반의 플랫폼들은 참여 가능한 검증인(validator)의 수가 너무 적기 때문에 더 많은 검증인들이 참여할 수 있도록 기술을 발전시켜야 한다는 것 또한 모두가 동의하는 사실입니다.

우리는 오랜 고민 끝에 우선 DPoS를 바탕으로 더 발전된 프라이데이 컨센서스 메커니즘과 적합한 토큰 경제, 거버넌스를 만들기로 하였습니다. 기술적으로는 확장성을 희생하지 않으면서 더 나은 탈중앙화를 이루기 위해 난수(random)를 이용한 여러가지 실험을 해 보고 있습니다. 이 부분에 대해서는 다른 주제를 통해 다시 이야기를 나눌 수 있을 것 같습니다.

공정함과 탈중앙화 (Fair and Decentralized)

우리는 공정하고 한쪽으로 집중되지 않는 더 건강한 탈중앙화 생태계를 만들기 위해서 기존과는 조금 다른 새로운 자격 증명 방식에 대해 고민하고 있습니다. 암호화폐 거래소 등 실제 네트워크에 기여하는 정도와 관계없이 많은 수의 토큰을 다룰 수 있는 생태계 구성원에게는 직접 검증인으로 참여하기 보다는 여러 훌륭한 전문 검증인들에게 위임해 주는 것을 유도할 수 있어야 하며, 전문 검증인들은 더 많은 위임을 받기 위해 수수료(commission)를 줄여가며 경쟁하지 않고 생태계에 더 많은 기여를 하고 충분한 보상을 받을 수 있어야 합니다. 이런 선순환을 통해 생태계 구성원들이 서로 도우며 발전하고 전체 생태계의 가치를 높일 수 있습니다.

새로운 자격 증명 방식은 PoS의 기본 개념을 해치지 않으면서 적절히 조화를 이루어야 하고, 공정함을 추구하기 위한 제도가 또 다른 불공정함을 만들지 않도록 매우 세밀하게 살펴보아야 합니다. 또한 너무 급격한 변화는 미리 예측하지 못한 다른 문제점을 만들 수 있기 때문에 천천히 그렇지만 단단하게 만들어 가야 합니다.

전문성 증명 (Proof-of-Profession)

우리가 새로 만들어 가고 있는 자격 증명 방식은 전문성 증명(Proof-of-profession)입니다. 오랜 고민과 논의를 통해 우리의 방향성을 가장 잘 표현하고 실현할 수 있도록 발전시켜가고 있습니다. 전문성 증명(Proof-of-Profession, 이하 PoP)은 기본적으로 다음과 같은 정책이 적용될 예정입니다.

  • 검증인들 사이의 불공정한 단합을 방지하기 위해 1토큰당 1투표 만을 허용합니다.
  • 전문성 점수(Profession score)는 단순히 위임받은 양에 의해 정해지지 않고 생태계에 기여하는 정도를 포함하여 종합적으로 판단됩니다. 다음 항목이 점수에 반영됩니다.
  1. 홀더에게 위임받은 양
  2. 탈중앙화 네트워크 기여도
  3. 거버넌스 참여도
  4. 기타 거버넌스에 의해 반영이 결정된 항목들
  • 더 나은 탈중앙화를 유도하기 위하여 위임받은 양은 전문성 점수에 정비례하여 반영 되지 않습니다. 위임받은 양이 일정한 비율을 넘어서게 되면, 점수에 반영되는 비중이 점차 줄어들도록 연구하고 있습니다. 이를 통해 영향력이 지나치게 집중되는 것을 방지합니다.
  • 검증인이 홀더에게 위임받기 위해 수수료를 줄여가며 경쟁하지 않고 생태계의 발전에 기여함으로써 경쟁할 수 있도록 모든 검증인의 수수료는 거버넌스에 의해 동일하게 결정됩니다.
  • 홀더의 지속적인 참여를 유도하기 위해 위임 후 일정 시간이 지나면 위임 보상이 감소합니다. 보상이 감소하는 것을 막기 위해서는 자주 생태계를 살펴보고 다시 위임해야 합니다.

이 글은 Hdac economy TF의 연구 및 실험 결과를 토대로 작성한 글입니다. 구체적인 수치는 연구가 진행됨에 따라 변경될 수 있습니다.

Written by Hdac economy TF — 김남웅, 이준행, 하동우, 주용완, 황석연.

PRIVACY POLICY

1. Introduction.

Hdac Technology AG respects the privacy of its Members, Contributors, Users or Clients and is dedicated to controlling the use and disclosure of information provided by Members, Contributors, Users or Clients using the Site. This Privacy Policy (the “Privacy Policy”) sets forth Hdac Technology AG’s policies regarding collection, storage, access, use and disclosure of information relating to a Member’s, Contributor’s, User’s or Client’s registration and use of the Site. Any terms not defined herein shall have the meaning set forth in the Terms & Conditions, the Transaction Terms & Conditions or the User Agreement.

2. Information Collection, Use And Disclosure Activities.

2.1 Registration Information.

To ensure that only legitimate entities and individuals are able to access the non-public areas of the Site and enter into transactions, we require each potential Member, Contributor, User or Client to, by using the Registration Page on the Site, provide (i) information regarding themselves (including name, e-mail address, job title, work address and work phone number), and (ii) information regarding their Company (including Company name and parent Company’s name and address). Upon receipt of Your registration data, Hdac Technology AG may contact You or Your Company to obtain other background information used by Hdac Technology AG to evaluate an applicant's qualifications for Membership, Contribution and/or Participation. Other than as specified in this Privacy Policy, the registration information will be used only internally by Hdac Technology AG and will not be disclosed to third parties without the applicable Member’s, User’s or Client's prior written consent. Notwithstanding of the before mentioned, Hdac Technology AG is obliged to report suspicious transactions and facts about individuals including Contributors to the relevant authorities without further notification and without becoming liable for any damage such action may cause.

2.2 References.

In addition to the information specified in Section 2.1, Hdac Technology AG may require Members, Contributores, Users or Clients or prospective Members, Contributors, Users or Clients to provide Hdac Technology AG with Company references to allow Hdac Technology AG to verify a Company’s capacity, legitimacy and reputability. Hdac Technology AG may provide such references to parties with which a Member, User or Client enters into a Negotiation to assure such parties that Company can meet its prospective obligations thereunder.

2.3 Member, Contributors, User or Client Profile.

Each Member, User or Client will create a Member, Contributor, User or Client profile that includes, among other things, information about this Member, Contributor, User or Client. Information in a Member, Contributor, User or Client profile are accessible only by the applicable Member, Contributor, User or Client, the Member, User or Client’s Group Administrator and Hdac Technology AG. Certain Member, Contributor, User or Client profile information will be provided to the parties engaged in a Negotiation in accordance with Section 2.5. Other than as permitted under this Privacy Policy, Member, Contributor, User or Client profile information will not be disclosed to third parties without the applicable Member, Contributor, User or Client's prior written consent.

2.4 Member, Contributor, User or Client Information.

(a) Hdac Technology AG may collect, use and disclose both on and off the Site, for marketing and other purposes, certain general, demographic and statistical information regarding Site usage and transactions. (b) To assist Member, User or Clients in selecting companies they may do business with through the Site, Hdac Technology AG may make available to Member, Contributor, User or Clients and non-Member, Contributor, User or Clients certain performance statistics of all Companies, provided that such statistics shall not include any Company-identifiable pricing information.

2.5 Technical and Usage Information.

To operate the Site, enhance its functionality, and ensure that Members, Contributors, Users or Clients Negotiations and communications are convenient, dependable and secure, Hdac Technology AG may collect, store and use technical and Site usage information relating to a Member, Contributor, User or Client's activities on the Site. Such information includes the Internet Protocol (“IP”) address from which a Member, Contributor, User or Client accesses the Site, which is used only internally by Hdac Technology AG as required for server operation and other technical uses, and is not disclosed to Members, Contributors, Users or Clients or other persons. Hdac Technology AG may also track the pages of the Site accessed by Members, Users or Clients.

2.6 Member, Contributor, User or Client Communications.

Hdac Technology AG may use Member, Contributor, User or Client contact information, such as e-mail addresses, to communicate with Members, Users or Clients regarding registration and transactions, to notify Members, Contributors, Users or Clients of changes in Site functionality and features, product and service updates, policy changes, billing and other activities relating to a Members, Contributors, Users or Client's use of the Site, and for marketing purposes.

2.7 Legal Compliance.

In addition to the disclosures permitted pursuant to this Privacy Policy, Hdac Technology AG may provide Member, Contributor, User or Client information in connection with legal, administrative or judicial inquiries, claims or orders to the extent necessary to comply therewith or to enforce a User Agreement.

3. Collection And Use Of Information Using Cookies.

As with many state-of-the-art Internet sites, the Site uses “cookies” to enhance the functionality of the Site and to make transactions and other activities more convenient and efficient for Members, Contributors, Users or Clients. A “cookie” is a file stored locally on computers used to access the Member, Contributor, User or Client account that contains information relating to a Member, Contributor, User or Client's past use of the Site. For example, a cookie may contain information previously entered on a Site form, which may be recalled as default information when that form is accessed at a later time. This prevents re-entry of frequently used information each time a Member, Contributor, User or Client account is accessed. Cookies are also useful in streamlining log-in and in preserving transactional information between sessions. Cookies will likely play an increasingly important role as we enhance the ability of Members, Contributors, Users or Clients to customize the functionality of the Site to better meet their needs and preferences. Most Internet browsers include preference settings that allow users to be notified and control whether cookies are transferred to their computers. Please review Your browser's documentation or “help” feature for more information on that functionality. Although disabling cookies will not affect a Member, User or Client's ability to transact business on the Site, it may make such activities more time consuming.

4. Linked Sites.

The Site may contain hyperlinks through which other Internet websites may be accessed by Members, Contributors, Users or Clients. Hdac Technology AG is not responsible for and cannot make any assurances regarding privacy, or other policies or practices of the operators of such websites. Such links are provided only for the convenience of our Members, Contributors, Users or Clients, and the presence of any link does not imply that Hdac Technology AG endorses, approves or is responsible for such websites.

5. Security.

Hdac Technology AG is very concerned with the security of information relating to our Members, Contributors, Users or Clients' use of the Site and has implemented systems and procedures to prevent unauthorized access to that information including the use of Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) connection and password protection. Each Member, Contributor, User or Client will create its own username and password, the secrecy of which is the sole responsibility of the Member, Contributor, User or Client. In the event the integrity of a Member, Contributor, User or Client’s password is compromised, the Member, Contributor, User or Client shall immediately change its password.

6. Updates To The Privacy Policy.

Hdac Technology AG may update this Privacy Policy from time to time as new features and services become available on the Site and to keep pace with technological developments. The new terms shall be effective ten (10) days after they are initially posted on the Site. It is the responsibility of the Member, Contributor, User or Client to review the latest terms. If You do not agree with updated Privacy Policy, You should immediately cease use of the Site and the Services.